By Gary Kaunonen
The copper mines of Michigan's Copper state, within the higher Peninsula, have been energetic for one hundred fifty years, from 1845 till 1995. a few of the mine employees tried to unionize, so that it will receive greater operating stipulations, wages, and hours.
The Michigan miners have been unsuccessful of their struggles with mine vendors, which got here to a climax within the 1913–14 Copper state Strike. This nine-month conflict among employees represented through the Western Federation of Miners (WFM) and the 3 significant mining businesses within the sector took a very nasty activate Christmas Eve, 1913, at a celebration for strikers and their households geared up by means of the WFM. As many as 500 humans have been within the Italian Benevolent Society corridor in Calumet, Michigan, whilst anyone reportedly shouted "fire." there has been no fireplace, however it is anticipated that 73–79 humans, greater than 60 of them young children, died within the stampede for the exit.
by contrast dramatic backdrop, Gary Kaunonen tells the tale of Finnish immigrants to Copper nation. by means of analyzing the written list and fabric tradition of Finnish immigrant proletarians-analyzing structures, cultural associations, and courses of the socialist-unionist media—Kaunonen provides a brand new intensity to our knowing of the time and position, the occasions and a people.
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Additional info for Challenge Accepted: A Finnish Immigrant Response to Industrial America in Michigan's Copper Country
Challenge Accepted: A Finnish Immigrant Response to Industrial America in Michigan's Copper Country by Gary Kaunonen